cause and effect



In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may be cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer as
  • (A) If statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect;
  • (B) If statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect;
  • (C) If both the statements I and II are independent causes;
  • (D) If both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes; and
  • (E) If both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

1).
Statements:
  1. The prices of petrol and diesel in the domestic market have remained unchanged for the past few months.
  2. The crude oil prices in the international market have gone up substantially in the last few months.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: D - Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes

The prices of petrol and diesel being stagnant in the domestic market and the increase in the same in the international market must be backed by independent causes.

2).
Statements:
  1. The government has recently fixed the fees for professional courses offered by the unaided institutions which are much lower than the fees charged last year.
  2. The parents of the aspiring students launched a severe agitation last year protesting against the high fees charged by the unaided institutions.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

The parents' protest against high fees being charged by the institutions led the government to interfere and fix the fees at a more affordable level.

3).
Statements:
  1. The Reserve Bank of India has recently put restrictions on few small banks in the country.
  2. The small banks in the private and co-operative sector in India are not in a position to withstand the competitions of the bigger in the public sector.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

The inability of the small banks to compete with the bigger ones shall not ensure security and good service to the customers, which is an essential concomitant that has to be looked into by the Reserve Bank. I seems to be a remedial step for the same.

4).
Statements:
  1. All the schools in the area had to be kept closed for most part of the week.
  2. Many parents have withdrawn their children from the local schools.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: D - Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes

Closing the schools for a week and the parents withdrawing their wards from the local schools are independent issues, which must have been triggered by different individual causes.

5).
Statements:
  1. India has surpassed the value of tea exports this year over all the earlier years due to an increase in demand for quality tea in the European market.
  2. There is an increase in demand of coffee in the domestic market during the last two years.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: C - Both the statements I and II are independent causes

The two statements discuss two separate statistical and generalised results.

6).
Statements:
  1. There is unprecedented increase in the number of young unemployed in comparison to the previous year.
  2. A large number of candidates submitted applications against an advertisement for the post of manager issued by a bank.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: A - Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

An increase in the number of unemployed youth is bound to draw in huge crowds for a single vacancy.

7).
Statements:
  1. The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers.
  2. The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil in the area.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: E - Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Both the statements are clearly backed by a common cause, which is clearly an increase in the number of thefts in the locality.

8).
Statements:
  1. Majority of the students in the college expressed their opinion against the college authority's decision to break away from the university and become autonomous.
  2. The university authorities have expressed their inability to provide grants to its constituent colleges.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

Clearly, the university's decision to refuse grant to the colleges must have triggered the college authority to become autonomous.

9).
Statements:
  1. The literacy rate in the district has been increasing for the last four years.
  2. The district administration has conducted extensive training programme for the workers involved in the literacy drive.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

Clearly, the increase in the literacy rate may be attributed directly to the stringent efforts of the district administration in this direction.

10).
Statements:
  1. The school authority has asked the X Std. students to attend special classes to be conducted on Sundays.
  2. The parents of the X Std. students have withdrawn their wards from attending private tuitions conducted on Sundays.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: A - Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

It seems quite evident that the parents have instructed their wards to abstain from private tuitions on Sundays and attend special classes organised by the school.

11).
Statements:
  1. The Government has imported large quantities of sugar as per trade agreement with other countries.
  2. The prices of sugar in the domestic market have fallen sharply in the recent months.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: A - Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

The increase in supply always triggers a reduction in the prices.

12).
Statements:
  1. There is sharp decline in the production of oil seeds this year.
  2. The Government has decided to increase the import quantum of edible oil.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: A - Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

A sharp decline in oilseed production is bound to reduce oil supply and import of oil is the only means to restore the essential supply.

13).
Statements:
  1. The private medical colleges have increased the tuition fees in the current year by 200 per cent over the last year's fees to meet the expenses.
  2. The Government medical colleges have not increased their fees in spite of price escalation.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: C - Both the statements I and II are independent causes

The increase in the fees of the private colleges and there being no increase in the same in Government colleges seem to be policy matters undertaken by the individual decisive boards at the two levels.

14).
Statements:
  1. Large number of people living in the low-lying areas has been evacuated during the last few days to safer places.
  2. The Government has rushed in relief supplies to the people living in the affected areas.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: E - Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Evacuating low-lying areas and rushing in relief to the affected areas clearly indicates that floods have occurred in the area.

15).
Statements:
  1. It is the aim of the city's civic authority to get the air pollution reduced by 20% in the next two months.
  2. The number of asthma cases in the city is constantly increasing.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

The increase in number of asthma cases must have alerted the authorities to take action to control air pollution that triggers the disease.

16).
Statements:
  1. The local co-operative credit society has decided to stop giving loans to farmers with immediate effect.
  2. A large number of credit society members have withdrawn major part of their deposits from the credit society.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

Clearly, withdrawal of funds by society members is bound to reduce the lending power of the society.

17).
Statements:
  1. The employees of the biggest bank in the country have given an indefinite strike call starting from third of the next month.
  2. The employees of the Central Government have withdrawn their week long demonstrations.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: D - Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes

The employees of a bank going on strike and the government employees calling off their protest seem to be two independent events that might have been triggered by individual causes.

18).
Statements:
  1. Police resorted to lathi-charge to disperse the unlawful gathering of large number of people.
  2. The citizens' forum called a general strike in protest against the police atrocities.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

Clearly, the people's mass protest against the police might have instigated the latter to indulge in lathi-charge to disperse the mob.

19).
Statements:
  1. Majority of the citizens in the locality belongs to higher income group.
  2. The sales in the local super market are comparatively much higher than in other localities.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: A - Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

The comparatively higher sales in a particular locality are indicative of the high paying capacity of the residents of that locality.

20).
Statements:
  1. The life today is too fast, demanding and full of variety in all aspects which at times leads to stressful situations.
  2. Number of suicide cases among teenagers is on increase.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: A - Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

Stress in everyday life is a major cause of frustration among the youth and is bound to lead them to take harsh steps as suicide.

21).
Statements:
  1. The government has decided to make all the information related to primary education available to the general public.
  2. In the past, the general public did not have access to all these information related to primary education.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

The government must have seen the unawareness of the people as a strong factor in the primary education programme being not successful. The step indicated in I must, thus, have been sought for as a remedy for the same.

22).
Statements:
  1. The farmers have decided against selling their kharif crops to the Government agencies.
  2. The Government has reduced the procurement price of kharif crops starting from last month to the next six months.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

The reduction in procurement price of crops must have instigated the farmers not to sell their produce to Government agencies.

23).
Statements:
  1. The performance of most of the students in final exam of class X in the schools run by the Government was excellent.
  2. Many teachers of the Government schools left the school and joined private schools.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: D - Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes

The students of government schools performing well in the examinations and the teachers of government schools leaving their jobs to join private schools are two separate situations that must have been triggered by independent causes.

24).
Statements:
  1. There is considerable reduction in the number of people affected by water-borne diseases in City A during this rainy season.
  2. The government has opened four new civil hospitals in City A in the beginning of the year.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: C - Both the statements I and II are independent causes

The given statements are self-sufficient and depict independent events.

25).
Statements:
  1. The prices of vegetables have been increased considerably during this summer.
  2. There is tremendous increase in the temperature during this summer thereby damaging crops greatly.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

Clearly, damage to crops due to high temperature may have resulted in a short supply of vegetables and hence an increase in their prices.

26).
Statements:
  1. There has been a high increase in the incidents of atrocities against women in the city during the past few months.
  2. The police authority has been unable to nab the culprits who are committing crime against women.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: C - Both the statements I and II are independent causes

An increase in the cases of atrocities on women and the police being unable to nab the culprits involved in the same are independent happenings in themselves.

27).
Statements:
  1. Rural and semi-urban areas in the country have been suffering due to load shedding for quite some time.
  2. If the Government is not able to overcome the power crisis, load shedding will be extended even to the urban areas.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: E - Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

The facts given in both the statements are clearly the result of acute power shortage.

28).
Statements:
  1. The university authority has instructed all the colleges under its jurisdiction to ban use of all phones inside the college premises.
  2. Majority of the teachers of the colleges signed a joint petition to the university complaining the disturbances caused by cell phone ring-tones inside the classrooms.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

Clearly, the university's decision came as a sequel to the complaint received by it from the college teachers against use of mobile phones in the college premises.

29).
Statements:
  1. Most of the steel producing companies in the country have made considerable profit during the last financial year.
  2. Many Asian countries have been importing huge quantities of steel from India.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: B - Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

The increase in demand of steel from other countries is bound to enhance business and hence profitability of steel companies in India.

30).
Statements:
  1. There is increase in water level of all the water tanks supplying drinking water to the city during the last fortnight.
  2. Most of the trains were cancelled last week due to water-logging on the tracks.
A   Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect   
B   Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect   
C   Both the statements I and II are independent causes   
D   Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes   
E   Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause   
ANS: E - Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

The problems discussed in both the statements are clearly the result of heavy downpour in the area.