matching definitions


Discussion Question


Read each definition and all four choices carefully, and find the answer that provides the best example of the given definition.

1).
Applying for Seasonal Employment occurs when a person requests to be considered for a job that is dependent on a particular season or time of year. Which situation below is the best example of Applying for Seasonal Employment?
A   The ski instructors at Top of the Peak Ski School work from December through March.   
B   Matthew prefers jobs that allow him to work outdoors.   
C   Lucinda makes an appointment with the beach resort restaurant manager to interview for the summer waitressing position that was advertised in the newspaper.   
D   Doug's ice cream shop stays open until 11 p.m. during the summer months.   
ANS: C - Lucinda makes an appointment with the beach resort restaurant manager to interview for the summer waitressing position that was advertised in the newspaper.

Although the ski instructors at Top of the Peak Ski School do work seasonally, choice a does not describe anyone applying for seasonal employment. In choice b, the statement that Matthew likes to work outdoors tells us nothing about seasonal employment or someone applying for it. And although choice d describes a business with seasonal hours, it does not describe a person applying for seasonal work. Choice c, on the other hand, very specifically depicts a person, Lucinda, who is applying for a job as a summer waitress at a beach resort, which is dependent upon a particular season of the year.

2).
Violating an Apartment Lease occurs when a tenant does something prohibited by the legally binding document that he or she has signed with a landlord. Which situation below is the best example of Violating an Apartment Lease?
A   Tim has decided to move to another city, so he calls his landlord to tell him that he is not interested in renewing his lease when it expires next month.   
B   Valerie recently lost her job and, for the last three months, has neglected to pay her landlord the monthly rent they agreed upon in writing when she moved into her apartment eight months ago.   
C   Mark writes a letter to his landlord that lists numerous complaints about the apartment he has agreed to rent for two years.   
D   Leslie thinks that her landlord is neglecting the building in which she rents an apartment. She calls her attorney to ask for advice.   
ANS: B - Valerie recently lost her job and, for the last three months, has neglected to pay her landlord the monthly rent they agreed upon in writing when she moved into her apartment eight months ago.

Valerie signed a legally binding document that requires her to pay a monthly rent for her apartment and she has failed to do this for the last three months. Therefore, she has violated her apartment lease.

3).
An Informal Gathering occurs when a group of people get together in a casual, relaxed manner. Which situation below is the best example of an Informal Gathering?
A   The book club meets on the first Thursday evening of every month.   
B   After finding out about his promotion, Jeremy and a few coworkers decide to go out for a quick drink after work.   
C   Mary sends out 25 invitations for the bridal shower she is giving for her sister.   
D   Whenever she eats at the Mexican restaurant, Clara seems to run into Peter.   
ANS: B - After finding out about his promotion, Jeremy and a few coworkers decide to go out for a quick drink after work.

After getting some good news, Jeremy and a few friends casually get together for a drink after work, thereby having an informal gathering. Choices a and c describe more formal types of gatherings. Choice d describes a chance or coincidental kind of meeting.

4).
People speculate when they consider a situation and assume something to be true based on inconclusive evidence. Which situation below is the best example of Speculation ?
A   Francine decides that it would be appropriate to wear jeans to her new office on Friday after reading about "Casual Fridays" in her employee handbook.   
B   Mary spends thirty minutes sitting in traffic and wishes that she took the train instead of driving.   
C   After consulting several guidebooks and her travel agent, Jennifer feels confident that the hotel she has chosen is first-rate.   
D   When Emily opens the door in tears, Theo guesses that she's had a death in her family.   
ANS: D - When Emily opens the door in tears, Theo guesses that she's had a death in her family.

This is the only situation in which someone makes an assumption that is not based on conclusive evidence. Choices a and c reflect situations in which assumptions are made based on evidence. In choice b, Mary is not assuming anything to be true. She is simply wishing that she'd made a different decision.

5).
Posthumous Publication occurs when a book is published after the author's death. Which situation below is the best example of Posthumous Publication ?
A   Richard's illness took his life before he was able to enjoy the amazing early reviews of his novel.   
B   Melissa's publisher cancels her book contract after she fails to deliver the manuscript on time.   
C   Clarence never thought he'd live to see the third book in his trilogy published.   
D   Elizabeth is honored with a prestigious literary award for her writing career and her daughter accepts the award on behalf of her deceased mother.   
ANS: A - Richard's illness took his life before he was able to enjoy the amazing early reviews of his novel.

Although choice d also mentions a writer who has died, it does not state that one of the writer's books was published after her death, only that she received an award. Choice a states that Richard wasn't around to see the early reviews of his novel, therefore implying that Richard died before the book was published. The other two options depict living writers.

6).
Guarantee is a promise or assurance that attests to the quality of a product that is either (1) given in writing by the manufacturer or (2) given verbally by the person selling the product. Which situation below is the best example of a Guarantee?
A   Melissa purchases a DVD player with the highest consumer ratings in its category.   
B   The salesperson advises Curt to be sure that he buys an air conditioner with a guarantee.   
C   The local auto body shop specializes in refurbishing and selling used cars.   
D   Lori buys a used digital camera from her coworker who says that she will refund Lori's money if the camera's performance is not of the highest quality.   
ANS: D - Lori buys a used digital camera from her coworker who says that she will refund Lori's money if the camera's performance is not of the highest quality.

Choices a, b, and c do not describe situations in which a product is guaranteed. Only choice d reflects a situation in which a seller attests to the quality of a product by giving the buyer a promise or assurance about its quality.

7).
The rules of baseball state that a batter Legally Completes His Time at Bat when he is put out or becomes a base runner. Which situation below is the best example of a batter Legally Completing His Time at Bat?
A   Jared's blooper over the head of the short-stop puts him in scoring position.   
B   The umpire calls a strike, even though the last pitch was way outside.   
C   The pitcher throws his famous knuckleball, Joe swings and misses, and the umpire calls a strike.   
D   The count is two balls and two strikes as Mario waits for the next pitch.   
ANS: A - Jared's blooper over the head of the short-stop puts him in scoring position.

The fact that Jared is in scoring position due to his blooper indicates that he has hit the ball and is now a base runner; therefore, he has legally completed his time at bat. Choices b and c both describe situations in which a strike is called, but they do not state that the batter has been put out or that he is now a base runner. Choice d describes a situation in which the batter, Mario, is still at the plate waiting for the next pitch.

8).
Erratic Behavior occurs when an individual acts in a manner that lacks consistency, regularity, and uniformity. Which situation below is the best example of Erratic Behavior?
A   Julia cannot contain her anger whenever the subject of local politics is discussed.   
B   Martin has just been told that he is being laid off. Before leaving his supervisor's office, he punches a hole in the door.   
C   Rhonda has visited the dealership several times, but she still cannot decide which car to buy.   
D   In the past month, Jeffrey, who has been a model employee for three years, has repeatedly called in sick, forgotten important meetings, and been verbally abusive to colleagues.   
ANS: D - In the past month, Jeffrey, who has been a model employee for three years, has repeatedly called in sick, forgotten important meetings, and been verbally abusive to colleagues.

Jeffrey's recent behavior is clearly inconsistent and irregular.

9).
Tiebreaker is an additional contest or period of play designed to establish a winner among tied contestants. Which situation below is the best example of a Tiebreaker?
A   At halftime, the score is tied at 28.   
B   Mary and Megan have each scored three goals in the game.   
C   The referee tosses a coin to decide which team will have possession of the ball first.   
D   The Sharks and the Bears each finished with 14 points, and they are now battling it out in a five-minute overtime.   
ANS: D - The Sharks and the Bears each finished with 14 points, and they are now battling it out in a five-minute overtime.

This is the only choice that indicates that an additional period of play is taking place to determine the winner of a game that ended in a tie.

10).
In the Maple Hill school district, a Five-Day Suspension occurs when a student is not permitted to attend school for five days for (1) physically assaulting another student, a teacher, or a school employee or (2) willfully destructing or defacing school property. Which situation below is the best example of a Five-Day Suspension?
A   Lillian gets caught cheating on a math test for the second time and is suspended from school.   
B   Marc is asked to leave the classroom due to his constant disruptions.   
C   Franny uses spray paint to write derogatory comments on the locker room wall and she is given a suspension.   
D   Ms. Farmer tells her class that students who fail the midterm exam will be expected to stay after school for tutoring help.   
ANS: C - Franny uses spray paint to write derogatory comments on the locker room wall and she is given a suspension.

Although choices a and c both describe suspensions, only choice c describes a suspension that is the result of one of the two scenarios given in the definition of a five-day suspension (physical assault or destructing or defacing school property). Therefore, we can assume that Franny's suspension, which is the result of spray painting school property, will be a five-day suspension. Since the definition doesn't provide any information about suspensions for cheating, we can assume that Lillian's suspension does not fall into the five-day suspension category.

11).
It is appropriate to compensate someone if you have damaged his or her property in some way. This is called Restitution. Which situation below is the best example of Restitution?
A   Jake borrows Leslie's camera and the lens shatters when it falls on the ground because he fails to zipper the case.When Jake returns the camera, he tells Leslie that he will pay for the repair.   
B   Rebecca borrows her neighbor's car, and when she returns it, the gas tank is practically empty. She apologizes profusely and tells her neighbor she will be more considerate the next time.   
C   Aaron asks Tom to check in on his apartment while he is out of town. When Tom arrives, he discovers that a pipe has burst and there is a considerable amount of water damage. He calls a plumber to repair the pipe.   
D   Lisa suspects that the pothole in her company's parking lot caused her flat tire. She tells her boss that she thinks the company should pay for the repair.   
ANS: A - Jake borrows Leslie's camera and the lens shatters when it falls on the ground because he fails to zipper the case.When Jake returns the camera, he tells Leslie that he will pay for the repair.

Jake damaged Leslie's camera while it was in his possession and he has agreed to compensate Leslie for the cost of the repair.

12).
Reentry occurs when a person leaves his or her social system for a period of time and then returns. Which situation below best describes Reentry ?
A   When he is offered a better paying position, Jacob leaves the restaurant he manages to manage a new restaurant on the other side of town.   
B   Catherine is spending her junior year of college studying abroad in France.   
C   Malcolm is readjusting to civilian life after two years of overseas military service.   
D   After several miserable months, Sharon decides that she can no longer share an apartment with her roommate Hilary.   
ANS: C - Malcolm is readjusting to civilian life after two years of overseas military service.

Malcolm is the only person returning to a social system that he has been away from for an extended period of time.

13).
Embellishing the Truth occurs when a person adds fictitious details or exaggerates facts or true stories. Which situation below is the best example of Embellishing the Truth?
A   Isabel goes to the theater, and the next day, she tells her coworkers she thought the play was excellent.   
B   The realtor describes the house, which is eleven blocks away from the ocean, as prime waterfront property.   
C   During the job interview, Fred, who has been teaching elementary school for ten years, describes himself as a very experienced teacher.   
D   The basketball coach says it is likely that only the most talented players will get a college scholarship.   
ANS: B - The realtor describes the house, which is eleven blocks away from the ocean, as prime waterfront property.

The realtor is using a clear exaggeration when she states that a house which is eleven blocks away from the ocean is prime waterfront property.

14).
Establishing a Power of Attorney occurs when a legal document is created that gives one individual the authority to act for another. Which situation below is the best example of Establishing a Power of Attorney?
A   Louise is selling her house and she hires a lawyer to review the contract.   
B   Simone's mother can no longer get to the bank to cash her checks and make deposits, so she has taken legal steps to enable Simone to do these things for her.   
C   Jack's father is elderly and Jack thinks he is no longer able to make decisions for himself.   
D   At her daughter's urging, Mrs.Lenox opens up a retirement account with the local bank.   
ANS: B - Simone's mother can no longer get to the bank to cash her checks and make deposits, so she has taken legal steps to enable Simone to do these things for her.

Simone's mother has taken legal steps to allow another person to act on her behalf. Therefore, this is the only choice that indicates that a power of attorney has been established.