Plant Structure

Q1: Cellular organelles are embedded in the

A endoplasmic reticulum

B cristae

C cytosol

D microtubules

ANS:C - cytosol

No answer description is available.

Q2: A cell without cell wall is called

A apoplast

B protoplast

C symplast

D none of these

ANS:B - protoplast

No answer description is available.

Q3: In plant cells, which of the following is not a function of the large central vacuoles of plant cells?

A Storage of food

B Support

C Contractile regulation of

D Waste storage water content

ANS:C - Contractile regulation of

No answer description is available.

Q4: Which of the following statements about mitochondrial proteins is true?

A All mitochondrial proteins are coded for and synthesized in the mitochondria

B Some mitochondrial proteins are coded for and synthesized in the mitochondria and others

C All mitochondrial proteins are imported from the cytoplasm

D Mitochondrial proteins arise from other mitochondrial proteins

ANS:B - Some mitochondrial proteins are coded for and synthesized in the mitochondria and others

No answer description is available.

Q5: If the ends of the following polysaccharide are pulled, which one would stretch the most?

A Glycogen

B Starch

C Cellulose

D None of these

ANS:B - Starch

Although both starch and cellulose are polymeric forms of glucose, they differ in their chemical and physical properties due to the linkage. Cellulose is mostly linear chains of glucose molecules linked together by beta 1, 4 glycosidic bonds whereas starch is found in both linear and branched chains.

The orientation of the glycosidic linkages in cellulose makes the glucose rings to be arranged in a flip flop fashion which contributes to the rigidity. There are no branching chains in cellulose. Cellulose also owes its rigidity to the numerous hydrogen bonds in the structure which in turn makes a good structural polysaccharide. Starch may stretch due to its low rigidity than that of cellulose.

Q6: If the ester bonds of a triacylglycerol molecule's are broken then the kind of molecule, which would be soluble in water, is

A fatty acid

B steroid

C glycogen

D glycerol

ANS:D - glycerol

No answer description is available.

Q7: Which of the following is not an electron carrier class in the electron transport chain?

A Flavoproteins

B Cytochromes

C Iron - sulfur proteins

D Cytochrome c oxidase

ANS:D - Cytochrome c oxidase

No answer description is available.

Q8: Which of the following functional groups would make a carbon-based compound the least polar?

A Phosphate

B Methyl

C Carboxyl

D Amino

ANS:B - Methyl

The inductive effect of methyl groups is very low. They do not have electrophilic or nucleophilic nature. Only covalent bonding. So, polarity would be least.

Q9: "The universe tends towards maximum disorder" is stated by

A first law of thermodynamics

B second law of thermodynamics

C third law of thermodynamics

D none of the above

ANS:B - second law of thermodynamics

Every system tends to gets towards minimum disorderness (decrease in entropy) , then why universe is tending towards increasing disorderness?

Q10: Which is not true about a photon?

A It is a packet of light energy

B The shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy of the photons

C It is trapped by photosynthetic unit

D It donates electron to reduce carbon dioxide to glucose

ANS:D - It donates electron to reduce carbon dioxide to glucose

What is a photon?

I think it is related to a specific type of energy.

Q11: Water content of active protoplasm is

A 10%

B 40%

C 70%

D 90%

ANS:D - 90%

No answer description is available.

Q12: Water content of active protoplasm is

A 10%

B 40%

C 70%

D 90%

ANS:D - 90%

No answer description is available.

Q13: Which part of a plant contains the male sex cell?

A Ova

B Style

C Stamen

D Pollen

ANS:D - Pollen

Stamen consists of filament and anther. Anther produces male sex cells (pollen grain).

Q14: Why do some redox reactions in cells result in the transfer of electrons from a reductant with a higher standard redox potential to an oxidant with a lower standard redox potential?

A Redox potentials are defined under standard conditions, and cellular conditions are typically not standard conditions

B The rules governing oxidation and reduction apply only in vitro, and not in vivo

C Electrons always go from reductants with high redox potentials to oxidants with low redox potentials

D None of the above

ANS:A - Redox potentials are defined under standard conditions, and cellular conditions are typically not standard conditions

No answer description is available.

Q15: Which of the following observations is not used as evidence to support the concept of endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria?

A Both have their own DNA

B Both have their own ribosomes

C Both strongly resemble prokaryotes, especially in size

D Both can live and function independently of the cell

ANS:D - Both can live and function independently of the cell

No answer description is available.

Q16: The composition of the inner mitochondrial membrane is most like that of

A the outer mitochondrial membrane

B the cell's plasma membrane

C some bacterial plasma membranes

D the nuclear membrane

ANS:C - some bacterial plasma membranes

No answer description is available.

Q17: The fluid matrix of a cell is called the

A nucleus

B cytosol

C cytoskeleton

D endoplasmic reticulum

ANS:B - cytosol

No answer description is available.

Q18: The mitochondria were known in the nineteenth century to be osmotically active on the basis of evidence that

A the mitochondrial matrix is hypotonic to the cellular cytoplasm

B the mitochondrial matrix is hypertonic to the cellular cytoplasm

C mitochondria were derived from a symbiotic bacterium

D mitochondria are surrounded by a semi permeable membrane

ANS:D - mitochondria are surrounded by a semi permeable membrane

No answer description is available.

Q19: Which cell type is likely to have the most mitochondria?

A Fast-twitch muscle

B Slow-twitch muscle

C Liver cells

D Adipose cells

ANS:B - Slow-twitch muscle

As slow twitch muscle help in long endurance, it needs more power, for long time, so more mitochondria.

Q20: Chemical energy is supplied to eukaryotic cells by

A chloroplasts and golgi complexes

B mitochondria and ribosomes

C mitochondria only

D mitochondria and chloroplasts

ANS:D - mitochondria and chloroplasts

No answer description is available.

Q21: What is the source of free energy (ΔG) for moving protons out of mitochondria against their concentration and electrical gradients?

A Glycolysis

B Creatine phosphate

C The redox reactions of electron transport

D ATP

ANS:C - The redox reactions of electron transport

No answer description is available.

Q22: Any system that is not at equilibrium

A is thermodynamically unstable, although it may be kinetically stable

B is kinetically unstable, although it may be thermodynamically stable

C is rushing toward equilibrium at a very rapid rate

D requires an enzyme to reach equilibrium

ANS:A - is thermodynamically unstable, although it may be kinetically stable

How can it be kinetically stable when the reaction is proceeding?

Q23: The cell membrane is made up of

A lipoproteins

B cellulose

C phospholipids

D phosphoproteins

ANS:A - lipoproteins

Lipoproteins are called only when protein and lipids are conjugated. There are some lipoprotein in cell mebrane's structure. But, cell membrane is mostly made of phospholipid bilayer.

Q24: Which of the following experimental results does not support Mitchell's chemiosmosis theory?

A Electron transport in isolated mitochondria was shown to result in acidification of the medium

B Addition of dinitrophenol to isolated mitochondria was shown to inhibit electron transport, but had no effect on ATP synthesis

C Addition of dinitrophenol to isolated mitochondria during electron transport was shown to inhibit acidification of the medium

D An artificial proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane drives ATP synthesis in the absence of electron transport

ANS:B - Addition of dinitrophenol to isolated mitochondria was shown to inhibit electron transport, but had no effect on ATP synthesis

No answer description is available.

Q25: Which of the following experimental results does not support Mitchell's chemiosmosis theory?

A Electron transport in isolated mitochondria was shown to result in acidification of the medium

B Addition of dinitrophenol to isolated mitochondria was shown to inhibit electron transport, but had no effect on ATP synthesis

C Addition of dinitrophenol to isolated mitochondria during electron transport was shown to inhibit acidification of the medium

D An artificial proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane drives ATP synthesis in the absence of electron transport

ANS:B - Addition of dinitrophenol to isolated mitochondria was shown to inhibit electron transport, but had no effect on ATP synthesis

No answer description is available.

Q26: Both plant and animal cell possess

A cell walls

B mitochondria

C central vacuoles

D chloroplast

ANS:B - mitochondria

Mitochondria is source of energy.

Q27: If complex III were incorporated into an artificial lipid vesicle in order to demonstrate it's proton translocating ability in isolation, which of the following would be an appropriate electron donor?

A Cytochrome c red

B Cytochrome c peroxidase

C Ubiquinol (UQH2)

D Cytochrome c oxidase

ANS:C - Ubiquinol (UQH2)

No answer description is available.

Q28: Lysosomes are associated with

A photosynthesis

B respiration

C storage

D digestion

ANS:D - digestion

Lysosomes contain hydrolitic enzymes, which can help in the digestion of cell, if the metabolism is disrupted.

Q29: Mitochondria can be expected most numerous in

A green cells

B red blood cells

C muscle cells

D none of these

ANS:C - muscle cells

No answer description is available.

Q30: Which of the following statements about the outer mitochondrial membrane is not true?

A The outer membrane is impermeable to hydrogen ions

B The outer membrane is highly permeable to substances of small molecular weight

C The outer membrane is about 50% lipid and 50% protein by weight

D The outer membrane contains porins

ANS:A - The outer membrane is impermeable to hydrogen ions

No answer description is available.

Q31: Specialized type of peroxisome and the site of glyoxylate pathway in certain plants is known as

A gly-peroxisome

B lysosome

C glyoxysome

D none of these

ANS:C - glyoxysome

No answer description is available.

Q32: Cellular metabolism is an example of

A equilibrium metabolism

B steady-state metabolism

C a series of reactions occurring under standard conditions

D a series of reactions that defy the second law of thermodynamics

ANS:B - steady-state metabolism

No answer description is available.

Q33: The element neon (Ne) has eight electrons in its outermost electron shell. How many covalent bonds will Ne readily form?

A None

B One

C Two

D Four

ANS:A - None

Neon is an inert gas because it doesn't contain any loan pair of electrons in its outermost orbital hence it won't react with any other molecules. Reactivity of any molecule is strictly depends on its electronic configuration and the number of single electrons or lone pair of electrons in its outermost orbital.

Q34: Which molecule serves as a carrier of fatty acids in mitochondria?

A Acetyl-CoA

B Carnitine

C Dolichol

D Malonyl-CoA

ANS:B - Carnitine

Carnitine is a transporter used as a carrier in lipid biosynthesis play in transport AcylCo-A in to the M inside.

Q35: The cellular organelle associated with secretion is the

A golgi complex

B mitochondrion

C ribosome

D lysosome

ANS:A - golgi complex

No answer description is available.

Q36: The cellular organelle associated with photosynthesis is the

A golgi complex

B mitochondrion

C lysosome

D chloroplast

ANS:D - chloroplast

No answer description is available.

Q37: Specialized type of peroxisome and the site of glyoxylate pathway in certain plants is known as

A gly-peroxisome

B lysosome

C glyoxysome

D none of these

ANS:C - glyoxysome

No answer description is available.

Q38: Tonoplast is a membrane around

A cytoplasm

B vacuole

C nucleus

D mitochondria

ANS:B - vacuole

No answer description is available.

Q39: Which of the following elements is likely to form the least polar covalent bond with hydrogen?

A Nitrogen

B Oxygen

C Carbon

D Phosphorus

ANS:C - Carbon

No answer description is available.

Q40: Which of the following can be found as a part of the mitochondrial matrix?

A Ribosomes

B DNA

C Enzymes

D All of these

ANS:D - All of these

No answer description is available.



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