Microbial Metabolism

Q1: Which of the following catalyze liberation of orthophosphate from organic P compounds and inorganic pyrophosphate ?

A Alkaline phosphates

B Oxidoreductase

C Protease

D Hydrogenase

ANS:A - Alkaline phosphates

No answer description is available.

Q2: Which of the following does not produce oxygen as a product of photosynthesis?

A Oak trees

B Purple sulfur bacteria

C Cyanobacteria

D Phytoplankton

ANS:B - Purple sulfur bacteria

No answer description is available.

Q3: Radioisotopes are frequently used in the study of cells. Assume a culture of E. coli is grown in a culture medium containing radioactive phosphorous. At the end of 48 hours, it is expected to find the radioactive label located in

A enzymes

B RNA

C phospholipids

D all of these

ANS:D - all of these

No answer description is available.

Q4: Standard free energy change (ΔG) can be expressed as

A ΔG° = -RTlnkeq

B ΔG° = RTlnkeq

C ΔG° = R/Tlnkeq

D ΔG° = -RT/lnkeq

ANS:A - ΔG° = -RTlnkeq

No answer description is available.

Q5: The chlorophyll molecules used by eucaryotes and cyanobacteria absorb radiant energy in the____________portion(s) of the visible spectrum.

A red

B green

C red and blue

D green and ultraviolet

ANS:C - red and blue

No answer description is available.

Q6: The reactions of the cell that are carried out for capturing energy are called

A catabolism

B metabolism

C anabolism

D activation energy

ANS:A - catabolism

No answer description is available.

Q7: Phosphate is considered to restrict the induction of

A primary metabolites

B secondary metabolites

C both (a) and (b)

D none of these

ANS:B - secondary metabolites

No answer description is available.

Q8: The specific enzyme/(s) of the glyoxylate cycle is/are

A isocitrate lyase

B malate synthase

C both (a) and (b)

D anaplerotic

ANS:C - both (a) and (b)

No answer description is available.

Q9: Phosphate regulation has been observed in the production of

A alkaloids

B antibiotics

C gibberelins

D all of these

ANS:D - all of these

No answer description is available.

Q10: In aerobic respiration, the terminal electron acceptor is

A oxygen

B nitrogen

C hydrogen

D nitrate

ANS:A - oxygen

No answer description is available.

Q11: If ΔG of a chemical reaction is positive in value and keq is less than 1 then the chemical reaction will

A proceed in reverse direction

B proceeed in forward direction

C not take place in any of the direction

D none of these

ANS:A - proceed in reverse direction

No answer description is available.

Q12: If ΔG of a chemical reaction has a negative value, the reaction

A releases energy

B requires energy

C both (a) and (b)

D none of these

ANS:A - releases energy

No answer description is available.

Q13: For each glucose molecule broken down, there are______________number of reduced coenzymes to be oxidized.

A 12

B 8

C 6

D 4

ANS:A - 12

No answer description is available.

Q14: Digestive reactions where large molecules are broken down into smaller ones are referred as

A anabolism

B catabolism

C metabolism

D biosynthesis

ANS:B - catabolism

No answer description is available.

Q15: Hexose monophosphate pathway is also known as

A phosphogluconate pathway

B oxaloacetate pathway

C malate pathway

D fumerate pathway

ANS:A - phosphogluconate pathway

No answer description is available.

Q16: Entner-Doudoroff pathway is found in

A aerobic prokaryotes

B anaerobic prokaryotes

C both (a) and (b)

D aerobic eukaryotes

ANS:C - both (a) and (b)

No answer description is available.

Q17: The glyoxylate cycle is used by some microorganisms when___________ is the sole carbon source.

A acetate

B nitrate

C carbon dioxide

D all of these

ANS:A - acetate

No answer description is available.

Q18: In order to get inorganic phosphorous into organic compounds, the phosphate ion is incorporated via

A substrate level phosphorylation

B oxidative phosphorylation

C both (a) and (b)

D DNA

ANS:C - both (a) and (b)

No answer description is available.

Q19: The catabolic reaction, pentose-phosphate exists in

A prokaryotic cells

B eukaryotic cells

C prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells both

D none of these

ANS:C - prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells both

No answer description is available.

Q20: In an oxygenic photosynthesis, the green and the purple bacteria do not use which of the following one as an electron source?

A H2O

B H2

C H2S

D S (elemental sulphur)

ANS:A - H2O

No answer description is available.

Q21: DAHP synthetase catalyzes the condensation of

A erythrose-4-phosphate

B phosphoenol pyruvate

C both (a) and (b)

D phenylalanine

ANS:C - both (a) and (b)

No answer description is available.

Q22: Free energy change (ΔG) of a reaction is referred as the amount of energy

A liberated during reaction

B taken up during reaction

C liberated or taken up during reaction

D none of these

ANS:C - liberated or taken up during reaction

No answer description is available.

Q23: The acquisition energy by glucose fermentation requires

A substrate-level phosphorylation

B electron transport of electrons from NADH

C long-chain fatty acid oxidation

D the enzyme formic-hydrogen lyase

ANS:A - substrate-level phosphorylation

No answer description is available.

Q24: In establishing proton gradient for chemiosmotic ATP generation by aerobic respiration the terminal electron acceptor is

A nitrate

B oxygen

C sulfate

D CO2

ANS:B - oxygen

No answer description is available.

Q25: Assimilatory sulfate reduction involves the nucleotide __________ during the incorporation of H2S in the production of __________ .

A ATP; methionine

B ATP; cytosine

C UTP; cytosine

D GTP; cytosine

ANS:B - ATP; cytosine

No answer description is available.

Q26: Which of the following statement is correct?

A Phosphate repression can not be eliminated by optimization of nutrient medium, deregulated medium must be used as production strains

B Phosphate repression can be eliminated by optimization of nutrient medium, deregulated medium must be used as production strains

C Phosphate repression can be eliminated by optimization of nutrient medium, regulated medium must be used as production strains

D Phosphate repression can not be eliminated by optimization of nutrient medium, regulated medium must be used as production strains

ANS:A - Phosphate repression can not be eliminated by optimization of nutrient medium, deregulated medium must be used as production strains

No answer description is available.

Q27: Entner - Doudoroff pathway is not found in

A aerobic prokaryotes

B anaerobic prokaryotes

C Both (a) and (b)

D eukaryotes

ANS:D - eukaryotes

No answer description is available.

Q28: Most of the energy in aerobic respiration of glucose is captured by

A substrate-level phosphorylation

B electron transport of electrons from NADH

C long-chain fatty acid oxidation

D the enzyme formic-hydrogen lyase

ANS:B - electron transport of electrons from NADH

No answer description is available.

Q29: Aerobic catabolism of glucose yields how much energy (ATP synthesized) relative to glucose fermentation?

A Slightly less

B About the same

C Twice as much

D More than 10 times as much

ANS:D - More than 10 times as much

No answer description is available.

Q30: The relationship between an oxidation-reduction potential difference and the standard free energy change is (where n is the number of moles of electron transferred, F= Faraday's constant and E°= standard oxidation-reduction potential difference)

A ΔG° = -nFE°

B ΔG° = nFE°

C ΔG° = -nFlnE°

D ΔG° = nFlnE°

ANS:A - ΔG° = -nFE°

No answer description is available.

Q31: If radioactive bicarbonate was supplied to bacterial cells, which were actively synthesizing fatty acids, it is expected to find the bulk of the radioactivity in

A cellular bicarbonate

B the fatty acids

C the cytoplasmic membrane

D nucleic acids

ANS:A - cellular bicarbonate

No answer description is available.

Q32: In the passive diffusion, solute molecules cross the membrane as a result of

A concentration difference

B pressure difference

C ionic difference

D all of these

ANS:A - concentration difference

No answer description is available.

Q33: The major route for incorporation of ammonia (NH4+) into organic compounds is via

A reduction of pyruvate or alpha-ketoglutarate by enzymes

B atmospheric nitrogen fixation

C oxidation of pyruvate

D all of these

ANS:A - reduction of pyruvate or alpha-ketoglutarate by enzymes

No answer description is available.

Q34: TCA cycle functions in

A catabolic reactions

B anabolic reactions

C amphibolic reactions

D none of these

ANS:C - amphibolic reactions

No answer description is available.

Q35: Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria oxidize

A water

B oxgyen

C sulfide

D ammonia

ANS:C - sulfide

No answer description is available.

Q36: Dolichol phosphate is

A a complex lipid involved in docking vesicles with the plasma membrane

B the anchor on which sugars assemble before transfer to proteins

C a chaperone used in protein folding

D a product of phospholipase C activation

ANS:B - the anchor on which sugars assemble before transfer to proteins

No answer description is available.

Q37: The phosphate inhibition in the clavine formation withClaviceps SD58, can be counteracted by the addition of

A alanine

B methionine

C tryptophan

D lysine

ANS:C - tryptophan

No answer description is available.

Q38: The reaction, where small precursor molecules are assembled into larger organic molecules is referred as

A anabolism

B catabolism

C metabolism

D any of these

ANS:A - anabolism

No answer description is available.

Q39: The bacteriochlorophylls used by the anoxygenic bacteria have absorbance maxima located in the_____portion(s) of the spectrum.

A green

B blue

C ultraviolet

D infrared

ANS:D - infrared

No answer description is available.

Q40: During the reduction phase of the Calvin cycle, phosphoglyceric acid is reduced to______utilizing________as the reduction source.

A phosphoglyceraldehyde; NADPH+H+

B phosphoglyceraldehyde; NADH+H+

C ribulose 1,5 - bisphosphate; NADH+H+

D pyruvic acid; NADPH+H+

ANS:A - phosphoglyceraldehyde; NADPH+H+

No answer description is available.

Q41: High energy transfer compounds are capable of

A accepting large amounts of free energy

B transferring large amounts of free energy

C measuring free energy

D none of the above

ANS:B - transferring large amounts of free energy

No answer description is available.

Q42: Which of the following groups contain(s) many unique coenzymes, such as coenzyme M and coenzyme F420?

A Sulfate-reducing bacteria

B Methanotrophs (methane-oxidizing microbes)

C Methanogens (methane-producing microbes)

D Acetogens (acetigens; acetate-producing microbes)

ANS:C - Methanogens (methane-producing microbes)

No answer description is available.

Q43: Which of the following nucleoside diphosphates is used most often in carbohydrate anabolism?

A Uridine diphosphate

B Adenosine diphosphate

C Guanine diphosphate

D Thymine diphosphate

ANS:A - Uridine diphosphate

No answer description is available.

Q44: As the electron flow through the chains, much of their free energy is conserved in the form of ATP. This process is called

A oxidative phosphorylation

B electromotive potential

C dehydrogenations

D none of these

ANS:A - oxidative phosphorylation

No answer description is available.

Q45: The role of bacteriophyll in an oxygenic photosynthesis is to

A reduce ferridoxin directly

B reduce NADP directly

C use light energy to energize an electron

D transfer electrons to an intermediate in the sulfide oxidation pathway

ANS:C - use light energy to energize an electron

No answer description is available.

Q46: Which of the following(s) is/are the products of the light reactions of photosynthesis?

A ATP only

B NADPH only

C ATP and O2 only

D ATP, NADPH, and O2

ANS:D - ATP, NADPH, and O2

No answer description is available.

Q47: When acetate is the sole source of carbon for some microorganisms, the cycle which is used, is called

A pentose phosphate pathway

B glycolyic pathway

C glyoxylate pathway

D oxaloacetate pathway

ANS:C - glyoxylate pathway

No answer description is available.

Q48: During the carboxylation phase of the Calvin cycle, CO2 combines with

A ribulose 1,5 - bisphosphate

B phosphoglyceraldehyde

C pyruvic acid

D oxaloacetic acid

ANS:A - ribulose 1,5 - bisphosphate

No answer description is available.

Q49: Incorporation of atmospheric N2to NH4+ occurs via the process of

A assimilatory nitrate reduction

B transamination

C deamination

D nitrogen fixation

ANS:D - nitrogen fixation

No answer description is available.



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