Carbohydrate

Q1: Boat and chair conformations are found

A in pyranose sugars

B in any sugar without axial -OH groups

C in any sugar without equatorial -OH groups

D only in D-glucopyranose

Q2: Hexokinase activity in glycolysis is inhibited by

A glucose 6- phosphate

B fructose 6-phosphate

C fructose 1,6 biphosphate

D phosphofructokinase

Q3: A common way that cells capture the energy released during the breakdown of large molecules is to add electrons to smaller, specialized molecules that can accept them. This process of electron acceptance is otherwise known as

A biosynthesis

B metabolism

C reduction

D catalysis

Q4: What is present in the stomach to prevent self-digestion?

A Mucus

B acid

C Enzymes

D hormones

Q5: Which of the following is not involved in the biosynthesis of DNA?

A Energy from ATP

B Mononucleotides

C Carbonic anhydrase

D Enzymes

Q6: Which of the following is not a disaccharide?

A Amylose

B Cellobiose

C Lactose

D None of these

Q7: The conversion of pyruvate to lactate is catalysed by

A pyruvate carboxylase

B lactate dehydrogenase

C pyruvate dismutase

D pyruvate decarboxylase

Q8: Saliva contains all of the following except

A hormones

B amylase

C bacteria-killing enzymes

D antibodies

Q9: Gluconeogenesis uses

A 3 ATPs and 2 GTPs per glucose

B 2 ATPs and 1 GTPs per glucose

C 3 ATPs and 3 GTPs per glucose

D 4 ATPs and 2 GTPs per glucose

Q10: During vigorous exercise, pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted to

A acetate

B lactate

C monosodium phosphate

D pyruvic acid

Q11: Which of the following statements about the energy needs of cells is false?

A Without a continuous input of energy, cell disorder will increase

B The laws of thermodynamics force cells to acquire energy

C Many cellular reactions have an associated activation energy

D The most usable energy for cells comes from the rapid combustion of glucose

Q12: The conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate

A requires biotin

B involves the fixation of carbon dioxide

C occurs in the mitochondria

D all of the above

Q13: Fructose is metabolized by

A fructose 1-phosphate pathway

B fructose 6-phosphate pathway

C glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate pathway

D both (a) and (b)

Q14: Gluconeogenesis is the

A formation of glycogen

B breakdown of glucose to pyruvate

C breakdown of glycogen to glucose

D synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors

Q15: Citric acid accumulation would

A stimulate phosphofructokinase activity

B stimulate fructose 1,6 diphosphatase activity

C inhibit phosphofructokinase activity

D both (b) and (c)

Q16: Glucagon and epinephrine

A inhibits gluconeogenesis and stimulates glycolysis

B stimulates gluconeogenesis and glycolysis

C stimulates gluconeogenesis and inhibits glycolysis

D inhibits gluconeogenesis and glycolysis

Q17: Insulin

A stimulates gluconeogenesis and glycolysis

B stimulates gluconeogenesis and inhibits glycolysis

C inhibits gluconeogenesis and glycolysis

D inhibits gluconeogenesis and stimulates glycolysis

Q18: Humans are unable to digest

A starch

B complex carbohydrates

C denatured proteins

D cellulose

Q19: A catabolic intermediate which stimulates phosphofructokinase would stimulate

A gluconeogenesis

B glycolysis

C glycogen synthesis

D none of these

Q20: In lysozyme catalysis, which of the following does not contribute?

A The abnormally high pKa of Glu35

B The strained conformation of the D sugar

C Formation of a covalent intermediate at Asp52

D Formation of a covalent intermediate at Ser195

Q21: Gluconeogenesis requires a higher amount of ATP equivalents as compared to that produced by glycolysis because

A gluconeogenesis releases energy as heat

B glycolysis releases energy as heat

C glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria while gluconeogenesis occurs in the cytosol

D all of the above

Q22: Pyruvate is initially converted to which of the following in the gluconeogenesis?

A Glycerol

B Phosphoenol pyruvate

C Oxaloacetate

D Acetyl CoA

Q23: How many ATP equivalents per mole of glucose input are required for gluconeogenesis?

A 2

B 6

C 8

D 4

Q24: Which of the following would be considered a part of metabolism?

A Biosynthetic pathways that build DNA

B Catabolic pathways that break down complex carbohydrates

C The capture of light energy for use in making glucose

D All of the above

Q25: a-amylose is similar to

A β-sheets

B β-turned coils

C α-helices

D the hydrophobic core

Q26: The main site for gluconeogenesis is

A kidney

B liver

C brain

D muscle

Q27: Two major products of pentose phosphate pathway are

A nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and ribose 5-phosphate

B flavine adenine dinuclueotide and glucose 5-phosphate

C FAD and CoA

D NADPH and NAD

Q28: Which of the following compounds is responsible for coordinated regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism?

A NAD+

B Fructose 2,6 bisphosphate

C Acetyl-CoA

D Fructose 1,6 bisphosphate

Q29: Hydrolysis of lactose yields

A galactose and fructose

B galactose and glucose

C glucose and fructose

D fructose and galactose

Q30: The NAG6 substrate is hydrolyzed by human lysozyme to form

A 6 glucosamines + 6 acetic acids

B NAG4 + NAG2

C NAG3 + NAG3

D NAG3

Q31: Under aerobic condition pyruvate is converted by pyruvate dehydrogenase to

A phosphoenol pyruvate

B acetyl CoA

C lactate

D glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate

Q32: The cells dependent solely on glucose as an energy source are

A muscle cells

B brain cells

C kidney cells

D liver cells

Q33: The ultimate source of energy that sustains living systems is

A glucose

B oxygen

C sunlight

D carbon dioxide

Q34: Storage polysaccharide made by animals is

A amylopectin

B glycogen

C cellulose

D collagen

Q35: The sugar which forms major component of nucleic acids is

A ribose

B galactose

C mannose

D maltose

Q36: Which of the following is carried out when cAMP functions as a second messenger?

A Acts second in importance to AMP

B Activates all cytosolic protein kinases

C Activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase

D Acts outside the cell to influence cellular processes

Q37: The production or break down of __________ is often coupled with the metabolic reactions of biosynthesis and catabolism.

A aspirin

B DNA

C ATP

D CO2

Q38: Cellulose fibers resemble with the protein structure in the form of

A β-sheets

B α-helices

C β-turns

D None of these

Q39: Which of the following can act as precursors for gluconeogenesis?

A Lactate

B Glycerol

C Alanine

D All of these

Q40: The glycosidic bond

A in maltose is not hydrolyzed in lactose intolerant humans

B in sucrose is hydrolyzed by bees

C joins glucose and fructose to form sucrose

D both (b) and (c)


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