Logical Deduction

Directions to SolveIn each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.Give answer:
  • (A) If only conclusion I follows
  • (B) If only conclusion II follows
  • (C) If either I or II follows
  • (D) If neither I nor II follows and
  • (E) If both I and II follow.

Q1: Statements: All fish are tortoise. No tortoise is a crocodile. Conclusions:
  1. No crocodile is a fish.
  2. No fish is a crocodile.

A Neither I nor II follows

B Either I or II follows

C Only conclusion I follows

D Both I and II follow

E Only conclusion II follows

ANS:E - Both I and II follow

Explanation: Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative. Also, the conclusion should not contain the middle term. So, II follows; I is the converse of II and thus it also holds.



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