Logical Deduction

Directions to SolveIn each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.Give answer:
  • (A) If only conclusion I follows
  • (B) If only conclusion II follows
  • (C) If either I or II follows
  • (D) If neither I nor II follows and
  • (E) If both I and II follow.

Q1: Statements: All flowers are trees. No fruit is tree. Conclusions:
  1. No fruit is flower.
  2. Some trees are flowers.

A Either I or II follows

B Only conclusion I follows

C Both I and II follow

D Only conclusion II follows

E Neither I nor II follows

ANS:E - Both I and II follow

Explanation: As discussed above, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'No flower is fruit'. I is the converse of this conclusion and thus it follows. II is the converse of the first premise and so it also holds.

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