## Logical Deduction

Directions to SolveIn each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.Give answer:
• (A) If only conclusion I follows
• (B) If only conclusion II follows
• (C) If either I or II follows
• (D) If neither I nor II follows and
• (E) If both I and II follow.

# Q1:Statements: All pens are chalks. All chairs are chalks. Conclusions: Some pens are chairs. Some chalks are pens.

A Neither I nor II follows
B Only conclusion II follows
C Either I or II follows
D Only conclusion I follows
E Both I and II follow

ANS:B - Only conclusion II follows

Explanation: Since the middle term 'chalks' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, II is the converse of the first premise and so it holds.

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