Logical Deduction

Directions to SolveIn each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.Give answer:
  • (A) If only conclusion I follows
  • (B) If only conclusion II follows
  • (C) If either I or II follows
  • (D) If neither I nor II follows and
  • (E) If both I and II follow.

Q1: Statements: All pens are roads. All roads are houses. Conclusions:
  1. All houses are pens.
  2. Some houses are pens.

A Either I or II follows

B Only conclusion I follows

C Only conclusion II follows

D Neither I nor II follows

E Both I and II follow

ANS:B - Only conclusion II follows

Explanation: Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'All pens are houses'. II is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds. Since the term 'houses' is distributed in I without being distributed in any of the premises, so I does not follow.

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