Logical Deduction

Directions to SolveIn each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.Give answer:
  • (A) If only conclusion I follows
  • (B) If only conclusion II follows
  • (C) If either I or II follows
  • (D) If neither I nor II follows and
  • (E) If both I and II follow.

Q1: Statements: Every minister is a student. Every student is inexperienced. Conclusions:
  1. Every minister is inexperienced.
  2. Some inexperienced are students.

A Neither I nor II follows

B Either I or II follows

C Both I and II follow

D Only conclusion II follows

E Only conclusion I follows

ANS:E - Both I and II follow

Explanation: 'Every' is equivalent to 'All'. Thus, since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, I follows. II is the converse of the second premise and thus it also holds.

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