Logical Deduction

Directions to SolveIn each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.Give answer:
  • (A) If only conclusion I follows
  • (B) If only conclusion II follows
  • (C) If either I or II follows
  • (D) If neither I nor II follows and
  • (E) If both I and II follow.

Q1: Statements: No gentleman is poor. All gentlemen are rich. Conclusions:
  1. No poor man is rich.
  2. No rich man is poor.

A Only conclusion I follows

B Neither I nor II follows

C Only conclusion II follows

D Either I or II follows

E Both I and II follow

ANS:D - Neither I nor II follows

Explanation: The first premise is an E-type proposition, So, the middle term 'gentleman' forming the subject is distributed. The second premise is an A-type proposition. So, the middle term 'gentlemen' forming the subject is distributed. Since the middle term is distributed twice, the conclusion cannot be universal. Since one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. Thus, it follows that 'Some rich men are not poor'. Thus, neither I nor II follows.

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