Logical Deduction

Directions to SolveIn each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.Give answer:
  • (A) If only conclusion I follows
  • (B) If only conclusion II follows
  • (C) If either I or II follows
  • (D) If neither I nor II follows and
  • (E) If both I and II follow.

Q1: Statements: Some hens are cows. All cows are horses. Conclusions:
  1. Some horses are hens.
  2. Some hens are horses.

A Both I and II follow

B Either I or II follows

C Neither I nor II follows

D Only conclusion II follows

E Only conclusion I follows

ANS:E - Both I and II follow

Explanation: Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, II follows. I is the converse of II and so it also holds.

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