Logical Deduction

Directions to SolveIn each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.Give answer:
  • (A) If only conclusion I follows
  • (B) If only conclusion II follows
  • (C) If either I or II follows
  • (D) If neither I nor II follows and
  • (E) If both I and II follow.

Q1: Statements: Some pastries are toffees. All toffees are chocolates. Conclusions:
  1. Some chocolates are toffees.
  2. Some toffees are not pastries.

A Both I and II follow

B Either I or II follows

C Neither I nor II follows

D Only conclusion II follows

E Only conclusion I follows

ANS:A - Only conclusion I follows

Explanation: Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. Thus, it follows that 'Some pastries are chocolates', I is the converse of the second premise and so it holds. Since both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion cannot be negative. Thus, II does not follow.

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